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Lipoprotein A: what it is, enhanced, how to reduce?

  1. The role of lipoprotein A in the human body
  2. What is lipoprotein A?
  3. Prerequisites for an increase in blood lipoprotein A
  4. Physiological indicators of lipoprotein A molecules
  5. Norm lipoprotein A (table)
  6. What is alpha lipoprotein lab test?
  7. How to prepare the body for testing lipoprotein A?
  8. Deciphering the lipogram on the indicator LP
  9. Video: Difficult questions about cholesterol
  10. Conclusion

Lipoprotein A is a lipoprotein consisting of cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, and a compound of the protein apolipoprotein A

Lipoprotein A is a lipoprotein consisting of cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, and a compound of the protein apolipoprotein A.

In its molecular structure, lipoprotein A is similar to the LDL molecule, but only there is a difference - it has a larger percentage of protein. The density of lipoprotein A is equal to high molecular weight lipids.

Synthesis of this type of lipoprotein occurs in the liver cells, and disposal - in the renal organ, and leaves the body naturally with the help of urine.

The role of lipoprotein A in the human body

Lipoprotein A is a risk factor when the concentration of such pathologies of the heart organ and the blood supply system of an organism increases:

  • CHD - ischemia of the heart organ;
  • Coronary insufficiency;
  • Myocardial infarction;
  • Vascular system pathology - arterial thrombosis;
  • Cerebral infarction;
  • Brain hemorrhage - stroke;
  • Vascular pathology - atherosclerosis.

If the cholesterol index is within the normal range, and lipoproteins A are increased by more than 0.30 grams per liter, this is a sign of the development of pathology of heart ischemia. If cholesterol and lipoprotein A are increased at the same time, then the risk of the occurrence of pathology of the cardiac organ (IHD) increases up to 10 times.

With atherosclerosis obliterans, there is also a high concentration of LP (A) in the blood.

Quite often, LP (A) accompanies a high index in the blood glucose, and can cause aortic or coronary atherosclerosis. Most often, an elevated lipoprotein A index is obtained by the child from the parents through a genetic inheritance line, and all attempts to influence its decline do not give positive actions.

It is not possible to influence its decrease by the same methods as reducing the concentration of lipoproteins in the blood of the human body.

You just need to constantly monitor its concentration and to prevent the development of pathologies of the heart and blood flow system, you need to get rid of other factors provocateurs of these diseases.

Causes of lipoprotein A growth  to content ↑Causes of lipoprotein A growth to content ↑

What is lipoprotein A?

In addition to alipoprotein A, the lipoprotein A molecule includes:

  • Glycoprotein molecules (Apo A);
  • cholesterol;
  • triglycerol molecules;
  • phospholipids;
  • Molecules A according to B.

The concentration of lipoprotein A in the blood plasma depends on Apo A - the lower the concentration of Apo A molecules, the higher the concentration of lipids A. It depends on the functionality of the genes that encode the production of apoliproteins A.

Concentration in plasma blood can vary within such limits from 0.10 milligram per deciliter and up to 200.0 milligram per deciliter of blood. The average regulatory index for plasma blood lipoprotein A concentration is up to 14.0 milligrams per deciliter.

Also in the composition of the molecule lipoprotein A is low molecular cholesterol, which contains apoliprotein B. This of course does not significantly affect its index in the blood.

Only by 10.0%, this may be the cause of this pathology, but 90.0% the level of LAA is determined by genetic means.

There is also a pattern of growth in the indicator LP - it grows rapidly in a child after birth and reaches its maximum numbers after the age of majority.

After that, the oscillation in the index stops and LP A is within the same values. The increase in the body occurs in women during menopause and with the onset of menopause.

The risks of development of cardiac and vascular pathologies from an elevated LP A index do not depend on the age category, gender, and there is no increase from improper diet, smoking, and alcoholism.

But still there are prerequisites for increasing lipoprotein A.

Lipoprotein A to content ↑

Prerequisites for an increase in blood lipoprotein A

The utilization of lipoprotein A molecules occurs in the cells of the renal organ, therefore, in case of a pathology of the renal organ, a malfunction may occur in this process and there is a possibility that for this reason their concentration in the plasma blood may be much higher.

Lipoprotein A is elevated due to the development of such pathologies in the body:

  • Insufficiency of the renal organ;
  • Pathology of the kidneys, which are treated by hemodialysis;
  • With diabetic nephropathy;
  • With the pathology of nephrotic syndrome.

An increased index of lipoproteins A depends on the genetic predisposition at the genetic level, then growth over the course of a person’s life is directly related to the occurrence and development of abnormalities of cells of the renal organ.

to content ↑

Physiological indicators of lipoprotein A molecules

Lipoprotein A takes an active part in the coagulation process of the composition of blood plasma, as a component of the LDL molecule, and also as a metabolism in the body of cholesterol and triglyceride molecules.

For this reason, lipoprotein A, is one of the participants in the formation of blood clots and provokes systemic pathologies and diseases of the heart organ.

In blood clots, lipid A molecules are diagnosed, which causes thrombosis of the great vessels.

With a high index of lipoproteins A increases the risk of coronary artery thrombosis by 70With a high index of lipoproteins A increases the risk of coronary artery thrombosis by 70.0%.

There are also other indicators of the effect of this lipid on thrombus formation in plasma blood:

  • Atherogenic abilities of lipid A enhance the transport action along the flow of the oxidized phospholipids;
  • The LPA index higher than 26.0 milligrams per deciliter provokes the formation of clots in the blood plasma;
  • Alpha cholesterol is an inhibitor of plasmagens that dissolve fibrin molecules, and contribute to the liquefaction of blood clots;
  • Lipoprotein A has the ability to penetrate into the cerebrospinal fluid and have a negative effect on all centers of the human nervous system.

When the human body begins to age, the risks of heart complications due to a high rate of LPA decrease, therefore, after 65 years, this indicator has not been thoroughly investigated.

In the pathology of diabetes mellitus, in the results of the analysis, a high PL ratio is quite often noted. But the association of a high glucose index in hyperglycemia and lipoproteins A was not detected.

In diabetes of the first type (insulin-dependent), an increase in LA A is higher than 36.0 milligrams per deciliter, which can provoke the glycemic coma and cause the patient to be fatal.

In a child’s body, LP A higher than 30.0 milligrams per deciliter can cause venous thromboembolism.

Mostly Alpha cholesterol is diagnosed in an elevated form in children with a large body mass - with obesity.

Physiological characteristics  to content ↑Physiological characteristics to content ↑

Norm lipoprotein A (table)

There are average indexes of alpha cholesterol depending on its age:

age category indicator LP A
unit of measure mmol per liter of newborns and up to 5th anniversary 0.980 - 1.940 from 5 years to 10th anniversary 0.910 - 1.940 from 10th anniversary to 15 years old 0.960 - 1.910 older than 15-year-old children 0.910 - 0.610 from 20 years old to 29 years old 0.780 - 2.040 from 30 years to 39 years old 0.720 - 1,990 40-year-olds up to 49 years 0.70 - 2.280 50th anniversary up to 59 years old 0.790 - 2.380 older than 60 years old 0.680 - 2.480

Regulatory indexes may differ slightly from the average data, it depends on the reagents used by the laboratories, as well as on the technical equipment of clinical laboratories.

Also, when determining the HDL index, it is necessary to take into account the gender of a person, because if the index in a man will have a value of 1.0360 mmol / l, and in women, the indicator will be equal to 1.30 mmol / l, then it is worth talking about a low concentration of alpha lipoproteins as part of plasma blood.

As far as the patient has an increased risk of developing pathologies of the cardiac organ, as well as the blood flow system, it is necessary to determine the atherogenic coefficient of the lipid spectrum.

The average rates of SV are from 2.0 to 2.25, in newborn babies, SV is 1 unit. In adults after 40 years, Ka should not exceed 3.5.

Cholesterol to content ↑

What is alpha lipoprotein lab test?

In order to correctly diagnose pathology and establish a diagnosis for a competent course of therapy of the pathologies of the vascular system and the cardiac organ, with increased overall cholesterol and low molecular weight lipoproteins, it is necessary to do a laboratory analysis on the concentration of lipoprotein A.

When diagnosing, it is very important to find out what role alpha lipoprotein and Apo A index, which has a genetic etiology, plays in increasing LDL.

An appointment for an analysis is given by a cardiologist, and if there is diabetes mellitus in a patient, consultation of an endocrinologist is necessary.

Quite often, when making a diagnosis of pathologies of the blood flow system and the heart, consultation of specialized specialists - a phlebologist and an infectious disease specialist is required.

This analysis is prescribed to the following categories of patients:

  • When collecting history, there is an early risk of developing pathologies of the vascular and heart systems;
  • Patients with a hereditary predisposition of diseases of the cardiovascular organs;
  • With hypercholesterolemia, that is not treated with medication;
  • Patients with the development of diseases of the heart organ and blood flow system that do not have genetic risk factors;
  • Patients who have a renal diagnosis;
  • Pa pathology diabetes of the first and second type;
  • Before surgical intervention in the blood flow system by the method of coronary artery bypass surgery;
  • With angioplasty surgery;
  • In children with the development of the disease - thromboembolism.
Deciphering the results to content ↑

How to prepare the body for testing lipoprotein A?

In order for the testimony of biochemical analysis to have the most reliable result, it is necessary to properly prepare the body for blood sampling. The blood for analysis is taken from a vein, capillary blood is not suitable.

Preparation process:

  • Blood donation in the morning on an empty stomach. The last meal should take place no later than 8 hours before the start of the procedure;
  • It is forbidden to drink tea and coffee, you can drink a small amount of water;
  • The evening before, it is necessary to limit the amount of food consumed;
  • To eat for dinner you need a salad of fresh vegetables, and you can eat a piece of baked fish, or chicken breast. Do not eat fatty and fried foods;
  • A day before the procedure, do not drink alcohol of varying degrees of strength;
  • A couple of hours before the procedure, do not smoke;
  • Do not donate blood after undergoing instrumental diagnostics by radiography and ultrasound;
  • On the eve of the procedure to abandon physical activity and sports training;
  • An hour before the procedure, calm down and donate blood for analysis in a calm emotional state.
The day before the procedure, do not drink alcohol to content ↑

Deciphering the lipogram on the indicator LP

Reference indices as a result of lipogram on lipoprotein A:

  • Less than 14.0 mg / dz is the normal concentration in the blood;
  • From 14.0 to 30.0 mg / dz - the border state of the LPA level;
  • From 31.0 to 50.0 mg / dL - high concentration;
  • Higher than 50.0 milligrams per deciliter is an overestimated degree of risk for the development of cardiac and vascular pathologies.
to content ↑

Video: Difficult questions about cholesterol

to content ↑

Conclusion

Due to the fact that the concentration of lipoprotein A in the blood is caused by a genetic abnormality and its high level cannot be reduced by medical preparations for lowering cholesterol.

How to reduce lipoprotein A can not exactly say no one specialist, because the drugs to reduce it does not exist.

Some doctors use hormone replacement therapy and nicotinic acid drugs, but this therapy does not always bring a positive effect.

Do not despair, but you must lead a healthy lifestyle, abandon harmful habits and make nutritional adjustments in order to lower total turkey cholesterol and low molecular weight lipids.

This will reduce the risk of developing heart disease and vascular system diseases.

How to prepare the body for testing lipoprotein A?